|20/21 July 356 BC in Pella, Macedon
|10 or 11 June 323 BC (aged 32), Babylon, Mesopotamia
|Philip II of Macedon
|Olympias of Epirus
Alexander III “the Great” was one of the most influential and successful rulers in history. He was born in 356 BC in Pella, the capital of Macedonia, as the son of King Philip II and Queen Olympias.
He inherited a powerful kingdom that had been unified by his father through diplomacy and conquest. He also inherited a well-trained army that was equipped with the latest weapons and tactics.
Alexander had a thirst for glory and adventure from an early age. He was tutored by the famous philosopher Aristotle, who taught him about literature, science, and politics.
He also showed great skill and courage in military matters, participating in his father’s campaigns against the Greek city-states and the Thracians. He became king at the age of 20, after his father was assassinated by one of his bodyguards.
Alexander’s main ambition was to fulfill his father’s plan of invading the Persian Empire, which was the largest and richest empire in the world at that time. He led his army across Asia Minor, defeating the Persian forces at the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela.
He then conquered Egypt, where he founded the city of Alexandria, and continued his march eastward, reaching as far as India. Along the way, he founded many cities, spread Greek culture and language, and encountered diverse peoples and civilizations.
Alexander’s achievements were remarkable, but they also came at a high cost. He faced many challenges and difficulties during his campaigns, such as harsh weather, rebellions, diseases, and mutinies.
He also became more arrogant and ruthless as he gained more power and wealth. He executed some of his loyal generals and friends on suspicion of treason or disobedience. He also adopted some of the customs and practices of the Persians, such as wearing their clothes and marrying their princesses, which alienated some of his Greek and Macedonian followers.
Alexander died in 323 BC in Babylon, at the age of 32. He had no legitimate heir to succeed him, and his empire soon fell apart after his death. His generals divided his territories among themselves, forming several kingdoms that fought each other for centuries. However, Alexander’s legacy lived on in many ways.
He is widely regarded as one of the greatest military commanders and conquerors of all time. He also influenced the history and culture of many regions, such as Greece, Egypt, Persia, India, and Central Asia. He is a source of inspiration and admiration for many people around the world.